CBSE : Class X : History : Nationalism In India : Question and Answer

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  • Published date: June 25, 2018
  • Modified date: June 25, 2018
    • Vasai East, Thane, Maharashtra

Q1 : Explain the idea of Satyagraha ?

Ans : The idea of Satyagraha was truth and non-violence. It suggested if the cause was true, if the struggle is against injustice, then physical force was not necessary to the oppressor.

Q2 : How did Mahatma Gandhi successfully organise Satyagraha movement in various places in India ?

Ans : Gandhijee successfully organised Satyagraha movement in various places in India as follows :

i) In 1916, he traveled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.

ii) In 1917, he organised a Satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat. Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue and were demanding that revenue collection be relaxed.

iii) In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise Satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

Q3 : What was Rowlatt Act all about ? Why did Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch a nation wide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act ?

Ans : The Rowlett Act was passed in 1919, empowered police to arrest anybody on the basis of suspicion and put them behind bar without trial. The duration of imprisonment could be of 2 years.

In 1919 Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch nation wide Satyagraha against proposed Rowlett Act. Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent, civil disobedience against such unjust law.

Q4 : Describe in brief the reaction of people immediately after the Jaliawala Baug incident ?

Ans : When the Jalliahwala Baug incident took place, people took to the streets in many part of North Indian towns. There was strikes, clashes with police and attack on Government buildings.

Q5 : What was the intention of Gandhijee in giving support in Khilafat movement ?

Ans : The intension of Mahatma Gandhi in the Khilafat movement was to unite Hindus and Muslims together to fight against British because they were enemy of both communities.

Q6 : Mention 3 main proposals with reference of non-cooperation movement as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi ?

Ans : The three main proposals with reference of non-cooperation movement as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi was:

i) It should begin with the surrender of titles that the British government awarded and boycott of civil services, army, police, court and legislative councils,schools and foreign goods.

ii) Tn case government uses repression, a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.

iii) They should boycott election which was proposed by the British Government.



Q7 : Explain the problem faced by the peasants of Awadh.

Ans : In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. The movement was against talukdars and landlords who demanded from peasants exorbitantly high rents and a variety of other taxes. Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords farms without any payments or security of tenure.

Q8. What were the main feature of non-cooperation movement in the country side ?

Ans : - In Awadh, Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and few other set up Awadh Kisan sabha. Within a few months, over 300 branches had been set up in the villages around the region. So when the non-cooperation movement started the following year, the effort was to integrate the Awadh peasant struggle into wider struggle.

In Gudem hills of Andhra pradesh, Alluri Sitaram Raju who was a folk hero was also follower of Mahatma Gandhi and was inspired by non-cooperation movement. He persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking but at the same time he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force and not non-violence.

Q9. What was the notion of Swaraj according to plantation workers ? How did they react to it ?

Ans :- For plantation worker in Assam, freedom means right to move freely out of the place they were confined and link to the villages from where they had come. Under the Inland  immigration Act of 1859, plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea garden without permission and infact they were rarely given permission. When they heard about non-cooperation movement, thousands of workers defied authorities, left the plantations and headed home. They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own villages. They, however, never reached their destinations. Stranded on the way by the railway and steamer strike, they were caught by the police and brutally beaten.

Q10. Explain the incident which forced Gandhijee to call of non-cooperation movement ?

Ans : As the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdar and merchants were attacked, bazaar were looted, and grain hoards were taken over. In many places, local leader told peasants that Gandhiji has declared that no taxes were to be paid. The land was to be redistributed among the poor. The name of Mahatma Gandhi was being invoked to sanction all action and aspirations. Mahatma Gandhi did not like these developments as he only wanted non-violence so, he called off non-cooperation movement.


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