CBSE : Class VIII : History : Chapter 2 : From Trade to Territory : Notes, Question and Answers.

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  • Published date: August 3, 2018
  • Modified date: September 29, 2018
    • Vasai East, Thane, Maharashtra

Important Points :

1) Lord Dalhousie annexed many kingdoms under Doctrine of Lapse.
2) The head of the Maratha confederacy was called Peshwa.
3) Mir Zafar didn’t help Sirajuddaulah in Battle of Plassey
4) Awadh was annexed by British in 1856 on the pretext of misgovernment.
5) Maharaja Ranjeet Singh was ruler of Punjab.

Important dates :

1756 – Alivardi Khan Died
1498 – Vasco-Da-Gama discovered the sea route to India
1764 – Battle of Buxar was fought
1799 – Tipu Sultan died saving his capital Srirangapatnam
1854 – British annexed Jhansi under Doctrine of Lapse policy
1773-1785 --- Warren Hastings

Q1 : Between whom was the Battle of Plassey fought ?
Ans: The battle of Plassey was fought between the Nawab of Bengal Sirajudallah and British under the command of Robert Clive in 1757

Q2: Name two commodities which were famous in the European markets ?
Ans: India cotton, silk and spices were in great demands in European market.

Q3: Name the kingdoms annexed by the Britishers under the Doctrine of Lapse policy .
Ans : The British annexed Satara (1848), Sambalpur (1850), Udaipur (1852), Nagpur (1853), and Jhansi (1854).

Q4: What was the main reason for the defeat of Nawab Sirajuddaulah in battle of Plassey ?
Ans: One of the main reason for the defeat of Nawab  Sirajuddaulah in battle of Plassey  was that the commander of the army Mir Zafar did not fight battle against Britisher as he was promised as next Nawab by Robert Clive.
 
Q5: Explain the Doctrine of Lapse policy ?
Ans:
i) The Doctrine of policy was introduced by the Governor-general Lord Dalhousie.
ii) The policy declared that if an Indian ruler die without a male heir then his kingdom would become the part of company territory.
Iii) The adopted son will have no power over kingdom.
iv) Satara, Sambalpur, Udaipur, Nagpur and Jhansi were annexed by applying by this policy.

Q6: Explain the systems of Subsidiary Alliance ?
Ans:
i) Subsidiary Alliance was introduced by Lord Wellesley.
ii) According to this alliance Indian rulers could not have their independence.
Iii) They had to pay for the subsidiary forces that company maintain for their protection.
iv)A permanent British resident was to be appointed in the kings court. The Indian rulers could not form any alliance or be friendly with other rulers without the consent of Britishers.
v) if the Indian rulers failed to pay the maintenance of subsidiary force, then a part of their kingdom could be taken away by British army.

Q7: Why were British furious with Tipu Sultan ?
Ans: British were furious with Tipu Sultan because:
i) Tipu Sultan stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper and cardamoms through the part of his kingdom.
ii)He established a class relationship with French and modernized his army with their help.
Iii) The British saw him as ambitious, arrogant and dangerous.

Q8: How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the east India Company ?
Ans :
i) The Diwani rights allowed the company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.
ii) The company bought most of the goods with gold.
Iii) After getting the Diwani the outflow of gold completely stopped.
iv) The British now used the revenues collected from Bengal to purchase cotton and silk textiles, maintain company troops and meet the cost of building forts and offices.

Q9: How many wars the British fight against the Marathas and what were the consequence of the third Anglo-Maratha war ?
Ans:
i)The English and Maratha fought three wars (1775-1782) which ended with the treaty of Salbai.
ii) (1803-1805) in which the British gain Orissa and areas to the North of Yamuna.
Iii) (1817-1819) in which the Maratha were totally defeated.
iv) The effect of 3rd Anglo-Maratha war was that the Peshwa was removed and send away to place name Bithur near Kanpur. The company got complete control of the territories to the south of Vindhyas.

Short Notes:

i) Robert Clive :  Robert Clive was the commander of navel fleets. In 1757, Robert Clive fought against Nawab Sirajuddaula at Plassey. Robert Clive was made the Governor-general of Bengal in 1764 and was asked to remove corruption in company. He himself had made a good fortune. Robert was cross examined by British parliament as they were so suspicious about his wealth. He was acquitted later committed suicide.


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