CBSE : Class VIII : Social Studies : Chapter 4 ; Tribals, Dikus and the vision of Golden Age : Question and Answer

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  • Published date: August 5, 2018
  • Modified date: August 5, 2018
    • Vasai East, Thane, Maharashtra

Q1. What were the steps taken by Birsa to reform tribal society ?
Ans: Movement led by Birsa Munda aimed at reforming the society. Some of the steps taken by Birsa to reform the society were:
i) He urged the Mundas to gave up drinking liquor.
ii) He asked them to clean their village.
Iii) He asked them to stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery.
iv) he also turned against missionaries and Hindu landlords. He saw them as outside forces that were ruining the lives of Mundas.

Q2. What were miraculous powers of Birsa ?
Ans : Birsa Munda was the tribal leaders of tribal uprising. It was believed that Birsa Munda had following miraculous powers:
i) People believed that he could cure all diseases and multiply grain grain.
ii) He declared that God had appointed him to save his people from trouble, free them from slavery.
Iii) People believed that he was been sent by God to help them.

Q3. In what two ways Birsa movement proved to be important ?
Ans: The movement was significant in two ways:
i) It forced the colonial government to introduce laws so that the land of the tribal could not be easily taken ever by Dikus.
ii) It showed once again that the tribal people had the capacity to protest against colonial role.

Q4: When and why Birsa was arrested ? What happened after he was released ?
Ans : Britishers arrested Birsa in 1895 because they feared that he will arouse the people against them. He was convicted on the charges of riots two years.
After he was released in 1897, he did following hings :-
i) Tours the villages to gather support.
ii) Used traditional symbols and languages to rouse people urging them to destroy ‘Ravana’.
Iii) many attacks and protests were done against European power and properties of moneylenders and zamindars were looted.
He raised a white as the symbol of Birsa raj.

Q5: List out the different revolts that took place in tribal groups.
Ans:
i) Kols rebelled in 1831-32
ii) Santhal rose in revolt in 1855
iii) Bastar rebellion in central India broke out in 1910
iv) Warli revolt in Maharashtra in 1940

Q6 : What problems did shifting cultivation faced under British ?
Ans: The problems faced by jhum (shifting) cultivation were :-
i) They had to give up there traditional way of life.
ii) They had to practice plough cultivation which was not easy.
Iii) They had to face scarcity of water and dry soil. Their land was measured and their rights were defined by them.
iv) The revenue demand was fixed.

Q7: How did the powers of tribal chiefs changed under colonial rule ?
Ans : Following were the changes in the powers of tribal chiefs under colonial rule:-
i) They were allowed to keep their land titles over a cluster of villages and rent out lands, but they lost much of their administrative power and were forced to follow laws made by the British officials.
ii) They also had to pay tribute to the British.
Iii) They were unable to fulfill their traditional customs and functions.

Q8: When did Birsa died and why ?
Ans : Birsa died in 1900 because of cholera.

Q9 : How did Birsa got his education ?
Ans : Birsa went to local missionary school and listened to sermons of missionaries. Later Birsa also spent some time in the company of a prominent Vaishnav preacher.

Q10: Write shot notes on Birsa childhood ?
Ans : Birsa was born in the mid 1870s. The son of poor father, he grew around the forests of Bohonda, grazing sheep, playing the flute and dancing in the local akhara.
Forced by poverty, his father had to move from place to place looking for work. As an adolescent, Birsa heard tales of Munda uprisings of the past. Birsa went to a missionary school.

Q11 : Why tribal population in India is considered as Adivasi ?
Ans : Tribal population in India is considered as Adivasi because they are originally backward and disadvantaged group.

Q12 : name the places where Indian tribal population is found ?
Ans : States where more than half of the population is tribal is concentrated in Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgargh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand and Gujarat.

Q13: On what was tribal economy based ?
Ans : tribal economy was based on food gathering, hunting, fishing and other activities related to forest.

Q14: Who were Dikus ?
Ans : According to the tribals, Dikus were the outsiders who came into the forest.

Q15 : What do you understand by Jhum cultivation ?
Ans : Jhum cultivation is also called as shifting cultivation. It was done on small patches of land mostly in forests. Cultivators used to cut down the tree tops so the sunlight can reach the ground and used to burn vegetation on the land to get clear land for cultivation. The ash was spread on the ground. This ash contained potash which acted as fertilizer to the soil. Simple tools were used. Once the crop was ready, it was harvested and people moved to other place.

Q16: How did Khonds earn their livelihood ?
Ans : Khonds were the tribal groups of Orissa. They went on collective hunt and divided the meat among themselves.They ate fruit and roots and cooked the food with oil extracted from seeds of sal and mahua. Many shrubs and herbs were used as medicines by them. They used to sell forest produce in the local markets. Suppliers used to take their help in order to get supplies of kusum and palash flowers in order to dye clothes and leathers.

Q17 : Why did tribals chiefs lost their authority ?
Ans : Before British arrival, tribal chiefs earned an important place in their tribes. They enjoyed economic power and administrative hold over the territories. But after British took over power, the power of tribal chiefs changed considerably. Britishers forced them to follow their rules. They were allowed to keep their land titles over a cluster of villages, yet they have to pay tributes to the British and discipline the tribals on their behalf. They lost the authority they earlier enjoyed.

Q18: What was the effect of Britishers on the tribal lives ?
Ans : British colonial rule had a tremendous impact on the otherwise isolated and peaceful lives of tribals :
i) They allowed zamindars, money lenders and merchants to plunder economic lives of tribe.
ii) They forced the tribal groups to settle down and become peasant cultivators. They wanted to stop shifting cultivation.
Iii) They extended their control over all forests and declared that the forests were property of state.

Q19: Name some tribal groups that survived by herding and rearing animals ?
Ans : Some tribal groups that survived by herding and rearing animals were Van Gujjars of Punjab, Labadis of Arunachal Pradesh were cattle herders. The Gaddis of Kulu were shepherds and Bakrawalas of Kashmir rears goats..

Q20: Who were Baigas ?
Ans : Baigas belonged to central India. They saw themselves as the people of forests who called live only on the produce of forest and therefore were reluctant to do any other work. According to them, it was below their dignity to become labourer.

Q21: What was the impact of the forest laws on lives of tribal communities ?
Ans :  Tribal groups were directly related to the forest. Therefore when forest laws were introduced , it directly affected the lives of the tribes.
i) Some forests were declared as reserved forests where nobody was allowed.
ii) It leads to declining of their livelihood and also made them move into poverty and debt.
Iii) They were not allowed to even freely in the forest.

Q22: Name the tribal groups that rear cocoon ?
Ans : The santhal tribal groups rear cocoons. They belonged to Hazaribaugh in present day Jharkhand. 

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