CBSE : Class VII : Social Studies : Chapter 2 : New Kings and Kingdoms : Question and Answer

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  • Published date: August 12, 2018
  • Modified date: August 21, 2018
    • Vasai East, Thane, Maharashtra


Q1: Who were the parties involved in the “tripartite struggle”?
Ans: For centuries, rulers belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties fought for control over Kanauj. Because there were three “parties” in this long-
drawn conflict, historians often describe it as the “tripartite struggle”

Q2: What were the qualifications necessary to become a member of a committee of the sabha in the Chola Empire?
Ans:
i) All those who wish to become members of the sabha should be owners of land from which land revenue is collected.
ii) They should have their own homes.
iii)They should be between 35 and 70 years of age.
iv) They should have knowledge of the Vedas.
v) They should be well-versed in administrative matters and honest.
vi) If anyone has been a member of any committee in the last three years, he cannot become a member of another committee.
vi) Anyone who has not submitted his accounts, as well as those of his relatives, cannot contest the elections.

Q3. What were the two major cities under the control of the Chahamanas?
Ans : The two major cities under Chamhanas (Chauhans) were Delhi and Ajmer.

Q4: How did the Rashtrakutas become powerful?
Ans : Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha and established his kingdom.

Q5: What did the new dynasties do to gain acceptance?
Ans: The new dynasties perform holy rituals with the help of brahmanas in order to gain acceptance. For eg, hiranya-garbha rituals performed by low cast to lead rebirth as a kshatriya.

Q6. Who were samantas ?
Ans: Samantas were big landlords as acknowledge by king.

Q7: What did the king expect the samanta to do ?
Ans : Samantas were expected to bring gifts for their kings, be present at their courts and provide them with military support.

Q8: Who was Mahamandaleshvara ?
Ans :  Mahamandaleshvara meant the great lord of region.

Q9: Who were Rashtrakuta ?
Ans: Rashtrakutas were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.


Q10: How did the Rashtrakuta become powerful ?
Ans : In the mid eighth century, Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief overthrew chalukya overlord and perform hiranya-garbha to become powerful.

Q11: What was the hiranya-garbha ?
Ans :  The meaning of hiranaya-garbha is golden womb. It was performed with the brahmans to lead to the rebirth as kshatriya even if he was not one by birth.

Q12: What were high sounding titles adopted by the new kings ?
Ans : The new kings adopted high-sounding titles such as maharaja-adhiraja and tribhuvana-chakravartin.

Q13: What was vetti ?
Ans : Vetti was tax taken not in cash but in the form of labour.

Q14: What was kadamai ?
Anss : Kadamai was a form of land revenue.

Q15: What were prashastis ?
Ans : Prashastis contains details about rulers that may not be literally true. Through prashastis, rulers wanted to depict themselves as valiant and victorious warriors. The prashastis were composed by the brahmins.

Q16:  Why did the rulers want to control Kanauj and the Ganges valley ?
Ans : Three parties, namely Gurjara-Pratihara, rashtrakuta and pala dynasties fought to control Kanauj. The rulers wanted to control Kanauj and ganga valley because it was fertile land with rich resources.

Q17: Why were temples the main targets of attacks ?
Ans : Large temples demonstrated the power and resources of the kings. The temples were the main target of attack because of their enormous wealth.

Q18: Who wrote Kitab-al Hind ?
Ans : Kitab-al Hind was written by Al-Biruni.

Q19: Who defeated Muhammad Ghori in 1191 ?
Ans : Muhammad  Ghori was defeated by Prithviraj III who was well known Chahamanas king.

Q20: Write short note on Rajaraja I.
Ans : Rajraja I was the most powerful Chola ruler. He became king in 985 AD and expanded control over most of these areas. He also reorganised the adminstration of the empire. The big temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram built by Rajraja and Rajendra are architectural and sculptural marvels.

Q21: Who built Thanjavur and temple for goddess Nishumbhasudini ?
Ans :  The town of Thanjavur and temple for goddess Nishumbhasudini was built by Vijayalaya.
 
Q22: Define Ur, Nadu, Muvendavelan, Brahmadya, Vellanagai, Shalabhoga, Devadana, Pallichchhandam, Nagarams.
Ans :
i) Ur: Settlements of peasants were called ur.
ii) Nadu: Large units of villages were called Nadu.
iii) Muvendavelan : A peasant serving three kings.
iv) Brahmadya : Land granted to the brahmanas were called Brahamdya.
v) Vellanvagai : Land of non-Brahmana peasant proprietors were called Vellanvagai. 
vi) Shalabhoga : The land for the maintenance of the school was called Shalabhoga. 
vii) Devadana : Land gifted to temples was called Devadana.
viii) Pallichchhandam : land donated to Jaina institutions.
ix) Nagarams : The association of traders were called Nagarams.

Q23 : How were the land grants recorded ?
Ans : The land grants were recorded partly in sanskrit and partly in tamil on copper plate.

Q24: How were the members of the sabha chosen ?
Ans : Names of those eligible to be members of the sabha were written on small tickets of palm leaf. These tickets were then put into an earthenware pot from which a young boy was asked to take them out one by one.

Q25 : How was poem written by Kalhana different then prashatis ?
Ans : Poet Kalhana took very critical approach about the rulres and their administration. On other hand,  prashatis, written by brahmins portrayed rulers as victorious and valiants kings which was not true always.

Q26: Write short notes on Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni ?
Ans : Sultan Mahmud ruled Ghazni from 997 AD to 1030 AD. He extended control over parts of central Asia, iran and the North-Western part of the subcontinent. He attacked the Indian subcontinent seventeen times and plundered wealth from rich temples including Somnath in Gujarat. Much of the wealth, Mahmud carried away was used to create a splendid capital city of Ghazni.,

Q27: How did temples became the nuclei of settlements ?
Ans : Chola temples became the nuclei of settlement which grew around them in the following ways :
i) Temple became the center of craft production that was distinctive and world famous.
ii) Temples were also endowed with land by rulers as well as by others.
iii) The specialist like priests, garland makers,cooks sweepers, musicians, dancers etc who worked at the temples often live near it.
iv) Hence temple apart from place of worship also became hub of economic, social and cultural life as well.

Q28: How did river Kaveri bring prosperity to the Chola Kingdom ?
Ans : Agriculture developed immensely during Cholas regime. River Kaveri branched off into several small channels before emptying herself in Bay of Bengal. These channels overflow frequently, depositing fertile soil on the banks. Water from the channels also provided moisture for agriculture, particularly for rice cultivation.

Q29 : How did Chola rise to power ?
Ans : Vijayalaya, who belonged to the ancient chiefly family of the Cholas from Uraiyur, captured the delta from the Muttaraiyar in the middle of the ninth century. He built the town of Thanjavur and a temple for goddess Nishumbhasudini there. The successors of Vijayalaya conquered neighboring regions and the kingdom grew in size and power.

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