CBSE : Class X : Civics : Chapter 1 : Power Sharing : Question and Answers

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  • Published date: September 9, 2018
  • Modified date: September 9, 2018
    • Vasai East, Thane, Maharashtra

 Q1 : Write about the ethnic composition of Belgium and Srilanka.


 Ans :


 A)The ethnic composition of Belgium is :


 i) Belgium composes of Dutch, French and German.


 ii) Of the country’s population, 59% were Dutch which were in Flemish region.


 iii) There were 40% of French who were in Wallonia region.


 iv) Rest 1% were the German people.


 v) In the capital, it was fully opposite as in the there French were in majority and consisted of 80% of total population and Dutch were in majority and consisted 20% of the population.


 B) The ethnic composition of Srilanka is :


 i) Srilanka composes of Sinhalese and Tamils.


 ii) Of the country,s population, 74% consists of Sinhala speakers and 18% consists of tamil speakers.


 iii) The Tamil speakers were further divided into 2 groups :


 a) Tamil natives who were also called as SriLankan Tamils consists of 13% of the population.


 b) Indian Tamils were those where forefathers came from India as plantation workers during colonial period.


 iv) Most of the Tamils were in the North and East part and were mostly Hindus or Muslims where as most of the Sinhala speakers were Buddhist.


 v) There were 7% Christians who were both Tamil and Sinhala.


 Q2 : What led to tension in Belgium ?


 Ans : In Belgium, the French were in minority and Dutch were in majority and the minority French-speaking community was rich and powerful. This was resented by the Dutch speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later.


 Brussels is the capital of Belgium and there the Dutch speaking constituted majorities in the country., but minority in the capital.


 These were the reasons which led to the tension in Belgium.


 Q3: Describe the majoritarian policy taken in Srilanka ?


 Ans : Following were the majoritarian policy taken in Srilanka :


 i) The belief that the majority can rule the whole country and over the minority in any way they want, even by disregarding the wish of the minority is known as majoritarian policy.


 ii) This policy was adopted by Srlanka to rule the country and to establish Sinhala supremacy.


 iii) In Srilanka, an act was passed in 1956 to recognise Sinhala as the only official language.


 iv) The government followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.


 v) A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism.


 Q4: Explain how Belgium had dealt with power sharing.


 Ans : Belgium government had adopted accommodation policy and had made many new laws. They have amended their constitution four times. The new laws made are :


 a) There should be equal number of ministers of Dutch and French in the Government.


 b) Many powers were given to the state government as well and the state government is not subordinate to the central government.


 c)Brussels has a seperate Government in which both the communities have equal representative.


 d) They made a third form of Government called community Government which is elected by people belonging to one language community. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language related issues.


 Q5: What do you mean by power sharing ? Why it is desirable ?


 Ans : Sharing of powers to different groups for the betterment of the country is called as Power sharing. Power sharing helps to avoid civic strife between the two major communities and a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.


 The two main reasons are :


 a) Prudential reasons: It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Since social conflicts often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.


 b) Moral reasons : Power sharing is the right spirit of Democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by the exercise. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.


 Q6: Difference between Horizontal power sharing and vertical power sharing.


 Ans


 i) Horizontal power sharing is :


 a) The sharing of power among different organs of the government such as legislative, executive and judiciary.


 b) Different organs government placed at the same level performs different powers and therefore called as Horizontal form of government.


 c) It keeps a check and balance on other organs.


 ii) Vertical Power sharing :


 a) Sharing of power among different levels such as central, state is known as vertical form of government.


 b) Different levels of government placed at different levels and performs different powers therefore is called as vertical form of government.


 c) It doesn’t keep a check and balance as the powers are clearly divided among higher level and lower level.


 Q7: What does the sharing of power among political parties, pressure groups and movement groups ensure ?


 Ans :


 i) The sharing of powers among political parties, pressure groups and movement parties ensure the influence in decision making process as democracy implies peoples choice among various contenders.


 ii) Regarding political parties, this sharing take place in way of political competition among different parties. This in turn ensures that power does not remains in one hand.


 iii) In the case of coalition government, this sharing becomes direct when two or more parties form an alliance to contest elections.


 iv) Pressure groups and movements groups influence power sharing through dharnas, rallies, protests , strikes etc.


v) By becoming the member of committee or a part of planning commission, power can be shared for advocating better policies.


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