CBSE : Class X : Civics : Chapter 2 : Federalism : Question and Answers

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  • Published date: September 9, 2018
  • Modified date: September 10, 2018
    • Vasai East, Thane, Maharashtra

 Q1: What do you understand by federalism ? List out its features.


 Ans: Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between two or more levels of democracy. The features of federalism are :


 a) In federalism, there will be two or more levels of government.


 b) Different tiers of government governs the citizen, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation etc.


 c) The jurisdiction of the respective levels of government are specified in constitution. The existence and authority of each tier is government is guaranteed by constitution.


 d) The fundamental provisions of the constitution can’t be unilaterally changed by ine level of government. Such changes required the consent of both the level of government.


 e) Courts have power to interpret the constitution and power of different levels of government. The highest court act as an umpire if dispute arises between different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers.


 f) Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.


 g) The federal systems there has dual objective to safeguard and promote unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.


 Q2: Discuss the dual objective of federalism.


 Ans : The dual objective of federalism are :


 a) To safeguard and promote unity of the country and at the same time accommodate regional diversity, government at different level should agree to some rules of power sharing.


 b) An ideal federal system has mutual trust and agreement to live together. Government at different levels should trust that each would abide by its part of the agreement.


 Q3: Compare “coming together” and “holding together” federation.


 Ans :


 a) Coming together : The states come together on their own to form a bigger unit and they have equal powers and and are equally stronger vis-a-vis the federal government. They come together so that by pooling sovereignty and retaining identity, they can increase their security.


 USA, Australia are some of the examples of the “coming together” federalism.


 b) Holding together : In this type of federalism, the central government tends to be more powerful vis-a-vis the states. A large country divides its power between the constituents states and the national government.


 India, Spain are some example of “holding together” federalism.


 Q4 Discuss the centre state relation in India ?


 Ans : India is “holding together“ federal state where central government is more powerful. This led to misuse of power in some cases when dealing with state government which was run by regional or rival parties. This was the beginning of the era of coalition governments at the center since no single political parties got a clear majority in Loksabha. The major national parties had to enter into an alliances with several regional parties to form a government at the centre. This lead to evolution of new culture of power sharing and respect for the autonomy of state government.


 Q5: Examine the significance of decentralisation.


 Ans : Power which is taken from the central and state governments and given to the local government is known as decentralisation of power. The advantages of decentralisation are :


 a) The basic idea behind decentralisation is that there are large number of problems and issues which are settled at the local level. People have better knowledge of the problems of their locality. They have better idea as to how to manage things efficiently at local level.


 b) Decentralisation make it possible for the people to directly participate in decision making. This helps the people to develop a habit to participate in democratic activities.


 c) It reduces the burden of central and state government. It helps them to concentrate on matters of national or state interest in a better way.


 d) It leads to women empowerment as it provide that atleast one-third of all positions are reserved for women.


 Q6: What all amendments were done in constitution to make the 3rd level powerful ?


 Ans : The amendments made to make the 3rd level powerful are :


 a) Mandatory periodic elections at local level to elect local government bodies.


 b) Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and execute heads of their constitutions for the schedule castes, schedule tribes and other backward classes.


 c) At least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.


 d) An independent institution called sate election commission has been created in each state to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.


 e) The state government are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies.


 Q7: ‘Creation of linguistic state was the first test for democratic politics'. Examine.


 Ans : The creation of linguistic states was the first and major test for democratic politics in our country. In 1947, the boundaries of several old states of India were changed in order to create new states. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same state. Some state were created not on the basis of language but to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity, or geography. These includes state like Nagaland, Uttarakhand etc.


 Q8: Explain the structure of rural government.


 Ans : Rural local government is popularly known by the name Panchayat raj and it has following structure :


 a) Each village or a group of villages in states has a gram panchayat. This is a council consisting of several ward members, often called panch and a president or sarpanch.


 b) They are directly elected by all the adult population living in the ward or village.


 c) It is the decision making body for the entire village.


 d) The panchayat works under the overall supervision of the gram-sabha.


 e) All the voters in the village are its members. It has to meet atleast twice or thrice in a year to approve annual budget of the gram pamchayat and to review the performance of gram panchayat.


 f) A few gram panchayat are grouped together to form what is usually called as panchayat samiti or Block. The members of this representative body are elected by all the panchayat.


 g) All the panchayat samiti in a district together constitute the zilla-parishad. Zilla-parishad chairperson is the political head of the zilla-parishad.


 


 


 


 


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