CBSE : Class X : History : Chapter 2 : The Nationalist Movement In Indo-China : Question and Answer

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  • Published date: September 20, 2018
  • Modified date: September 20, 2018
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 Q1: How French were working on bringing infrastructural and economic development ?


 Ans : Following were the ways the French brought infrastructural and economic development :


 a) The French began building canal and draining in the Mekong delta to increase cultivation.


 b) This led to increase in rice cultivation and allowed the export of rice to the international market and Vietnam became third largest exporter of rice in the world.


 c) This was followed by infrastructure development to help transport goods for trade, more military garrisons and control entire region.


 d) Construction of trans Indo-China rail network that linked northern and southern parts of Vietnam to China was also built.


 e) Many new rubber estates owned by the French businessmen were established.


 Q2: Who was Paul Bernad ? Write his views in relation to bring development ?


 Ans : Paul Bernad was an influential writer and policy maker who suggested to model for developing French colonies.


 His views were:


 a) He simply believed that economic development of the colony was the only method by which interest of mother country can be served.


 b) He argued that the purpose of acquiring colonies has to make profits and this was only possible by developed economy where people will have more purchasing power of goods. This will lead to growth of market and hence more profits to French business.


 Q3: When and why did Tonkin free school was started ?


 Ans: Tonkin free school was started in 1907 with following objectives :


 a) It was aimed to provide western style education to the Vietnamese.


 b) It provided education to rich classes in science, hygiene and French culture.


 c) The school’s approach towards modernisation was that to modernise Vietnamese, there by denting local culture.


 d) The school encouraged the adoption of western styles such as having short hair cut.


 Q4: What was the meaning of modernisation to French ?


 Ans :


 a) The French was driven by the idea of a civilising mission of British in India. The French claimed that they were bringing modern civilisation to the Vietnam even if this meant destroying local culture, traditions and relations.


 b) Education was seen as one way to civilise the Vietnamese. They systematically dismantled the tradition, educational system and established French school for the Vietnamese.


 c) Asiatic France could be created and tied firmly to European France if French is taken as medium of instruction. By learning French culture, the Vietnamese would be introduced to the new culture and civilisation of France.


 d) School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward capable of manual labour, but not of intellectual reflection.


 Q5: Explain in detail the open and silent resistance in schools ?


 Ans : The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through control of education whereas Vietnamese intellectuals wanted to use education as power to motivate the student to resist against colonial rule:


 a) Open resistance started in 1926 in the Saigon Native Girls school when a Vietnamese girl was asked to vacant a front row seat for a French girls which she refused. She was expelled from the school by the principal who was colon.


 b) When angry students protested, they too were expelled. This led to an open protest by people bringing the Government to take students back.


 c) To fight against colonial government, students formed various political parties Annanese Student.


 Q6: Write the steps taken by French to glorify french culture in Vietnam.


 Ans : Following were the various steps taken by French to glorify their culture in Vietnam:


 a) The French dismantled the local education system and established French schools.


 b) They felt that by learning French language, Vietnamese would be introduced to the culture and civilisation of France.


 c) Asiatic France could be created which could be solidly be tied to European France. The educated people would respect French sentiments and ideals.


 d) Schools textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward.


 e) The free school was started in 1907 to provide western style education. This provide education in science, hygiene and French. The school encouraged adoption of European style.


 Q7: Write an account of resistance which was shown in case of Hanoi during rat hunt.


 Ans :


 a) Hanoi was stuck by bubonic plague in 1903.


 b) To stop the invasion of rats, a rat hunt was started in 1902. The French hired Vietnamese worker and paid them for each rat they caught.


 c) The Vietnamese workers discovered innovative ways to profit from the situation. The bounty was paid when the tail of the rat was presented as proof. So rat catchers just clipped the tail and released the rats. In fact some people actually started to raise rats in order to earn bounty.


 d) defeated by resistance of the weak, the French were forced to stop the bounty program.


 Q8: List out the ways in which religious movement took place in Vietnam ?


 Ans : The introduction of Christianity by French was to correct Vietnamese worship of supernatural power. Many religious movement were hostile to the Western presence.


 a) Scholar Revolt: This can be considered as one of the religious resistance shown by the Vietnamese in 1868. This revolt was led by the officials at the imperial court angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power.


 b) Hoa Hao was also seen as such resistance begun in 1939. It drew on religious ideals popular in ant-French uprising of the 19th century. The founder of Hoa Hao was Huynh Phu. He criticised useless expenditure and opposed sale of child brides, gambling and use of alcohol and opium.


 Q9: Explain the religious belief popular in Vietnam.


 Ans : Vietnam’s religious beliefs were mix of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices.


 Q10: Who was Phan Boi Chau? Why was he famous ?


 Ans : Phan Boi Chau belonged to the elite section of the society. He was educated in Confucian tradition who lived from 1867-1940. he became major figure when he started Revolutionary society in 1903, with prince Cuong De as head.


 His book, The History of Loss of the Vietnam, turned out to be very influential which focussed largely on two connected themes: the loss of sovereignty and the severing ties with China.


 Q11: name the nationalist who was against the theory of Phan Boi Chau. Explain his belief.


 Ans : Among many nationalist, Phan Chu Trinh also strongly deferred by the ideas of Phan Boi Chau. He was intensely hostile to the monarchy and opposed to the idea of resisting French with the help of court.


 He was influenced by democracy. He accepted French revolutionary ideal of liberty but charged the French for not abiding by it.


 Q12: What were various ways in which new republic of Vietnam was formed ?


 Ans : During ‘go east movement’, about 300 Vietnamese went to japan to acquire modern education in first decade of twentieth century.


 They wanted to overthrow French government and re-establish Nguyen dynasty. Some went to china and got influenced by how the monarchy was overturned.


 Q13: What was Ho-chi-Minh trail ?


 Ans : Ho-chi-Minh trail was a network of roads and foot paths which was used vy Vietnamese to mobilise their limited resources to maximise their benefits during was with United States.


 This was used to transport goods and people fro north to south of Vietnam. The trail has support base and hospital along the way. Most of the trail was outside of Vietnam, in Laos and Cambodia.


 The trail led to quick movement of forces and maintained quick support of food and medicine.


 Q14) What was role of women in Vietnam?


 Ans : The women played very important role in Vietnam :


 a) With the beginning of nationalist movement in Vietnam, there emerged a new image of womanhood. Nationalist writers and political thinkers idolised women.


 b) Rebel women of the past began to be celebrated. Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on Trung sisters and were depicted as patriots fighting for Vietnam.


 c) The image of Trieu Au was also worshipped as sacred figure.


 d) Magazines and journals having the pictures of women militia shooting down planes began showcasing women as young brave fighters.


 e) Women were not only depicted as warriors but also as workers in agriculture cooperatives, factories and production units


 


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