CBSE : Class IX : History : Chapter 1 :French Revolution : Question And Answer : Part II

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  • Published date: June 14, 2019
  • Modified date: June 14, 2019
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 Q15) Write short notes on Maximilian Robespierre; Montesquieu; Jean Jacques Rousseau; John Locke; Voltaire; Olympe de Gouges.

 Ans : -
Maximilian Robespierre : He was the leader of Jacobin club. He followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those who talked against him, no matter who so ever, were arrested and if found guilty were guillotined. He led reign of terror. Later he was convicted and guillotined.
 Montesquieu : He was a French thinker and author of book " The spirit of Laws". He believed that executive, legislative and judicial powers should not be concentrated in single person as it leads to dictatorial rule. He stressed on the principle of separation of power and individual liberty.

 Jean Jacques Rousseau: His writing played a significant role in bringing about French revolution and encourage people to fight for their rights. He believed that government should be based on the consent of govern. His most famous work ' The social contract ' talks of the contract between the ruler and ruled.
John Locke : - According to him, people have the right to change the government if they are not satisfied with it.He was a French philosopher. In his book 'Two treaties of Government' he sought to refute the doctrine of divine and absolute monarch.
 Voltaire : - A famous and influential writer who stressed on religious tolerance and freedom of speech. He is credited of famous statement on free speech " I do not agree with the word you say, but I will defend to the right to say it." He savagely attacked all the things he considered superstition and was critic of catholic church.

 Olympe de Gouges : - She was one of the most active woman in revolutionary France. In 1791, she wrote a deceleration of rights of women and citizen. As she was critical of Jacobin government, she was charged with treason and executed.

 Q15) What were the roles of philosopher in the French revolution ?

 A) Following are the role of philosopher in the French Revolution:

 1) By his book, “Two Treatises of Government”, Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch. Rousseau carried the idea forward, proposing a form of government based on a social contract between people and their representatives.

 By his book, The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary.

 Q16) What was directory ? Why was it removed from France ?

 Ans) Directory was the five executive member team appointed by two elected legislative councils. This was meant as a safeguard against the concentration of power in a one-man executive as under the Jacobins.

 However, the Directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them.





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